Munro Chandler 2008

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Playing with confidence

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What is the aim of the study?

- To investigate the relationship of MG-m imagery and self confidence and self efficacy in soccer players aged 11-14
-To see id the relation would hold true for young athletes

Describe the sample of the study

-122 males and female soccer athletes.
-Aged 11-14 years old and recruited by recreational and competitive soccer leagues

What were the 3 measures and how were they measured?

3 measures were imagery use, self confidence and self efficacy.
Imagery-Sport Imagery questionnaire
Sport confidence-competitive trait anxiety 2
Sport efficacy- sport efficacy questionnaire

Describe the procedure

Firstly permission to do the experiment was granted by the university research ethic board. Consent from parents/players given. Data was collected before practice over a 2 week period in mid season. Participants then completed a demographic questionnaire and completed the 3 measures questionnaire.

What were the results found?

-All the imagery sub scales correlated positively and strongly with other 2 measures.
- Mg-M imagery has the strongest/positive correlation. As result the study showed that there was a relation.

Name the 4 back up studies

- Vealey mode of sport confidence
- Bandura: sporting self efficacy
-Van Raalte et al Self talk
-Epstein Target approach

Describe Vealey's model of sport confidence

- Sporting self confidence= the belief in an individuals ability.
-Theory suggested that athletes state confidence in an objective sporting situation would be affected by trait sport confidence.
Therefore the higher the trait sport confidence level the higher the state sport confidence and competitive orientation.
-After performance in an objective situation is positive(outcome) trait sport confidence will increase. Vice versa for negative, Therefore performance will improve.
-Vealey developed psychometric test to measure competitive orientation . Theses measures were tested and validated by a sample of 666 high school college students

Describe Bandura sporting self efficacy

self efficacy=ones belief in an ability to succeed in a specific situation.
- Suggested that low self efficacy will lead to a worse performance .
-Bandura stated that there are 4 factors which can influence your sporting efficacy
1)Previous personal achievement
2)Watching model demonstrate skill
3)praise
4) Emotional arousal;controlling arousal levels

Describe van raalte et al self talk

Study was on positive self talk, he recuited 60 males undergrads.
-They were assigned to self talk group in which they had to repeat "i will score". Control group did not do it
- They had to repeat phrase while completing 15 dart throws. Results showed that self talk lead to higher accuracy

Epstein target

Tasks ensure training is challenging,focus new skill
Authority let athletes decide e.g use rewards
Group athletes work in groups to improve co op
Evaulation give feed back
Timing give enough time to master skill.

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