National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals of 1973
recommended "no new institutions for adults should be built and existing institutions for juveniles should be closed...the prison, the reformatory, and the jail have achieved only a shocking record of failure." In the 1970's academics thought that prisons would fade away.
-the widespread belief that race no longer matters.
-blinds us to the realities of race that has facilitated a new caste system
a stigmatized racial group locked into an inferior position by law and custom