American Republic Chapter 3

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1.) Name the three largest groups of Europeans to settle in America.

English, Germans, Scots-Irish

2.) What percentage of early colonists were farmers?

90%

3.) What was subsistence farming?

When a farmer raised just enough crops and livestock to feed their family. Farmers didn't make profits from this farming.

4-5.)Why wasn't New England suitable for farming?

4.)Thin, rocky soil
5.)Hilly- lots of hills

6-8.) What were the three ocean-related new England occupations?

6.) Fishing
7.) Whaling
8.) Building and trading of ships with Britain

9-10.) What two things were whales valuable for?

9.) Oil
10.) Bones

11-12.) What two geographic characteristics were advantages to the middle colonies?

11.) Rich, thick soil
12.) Many navigable rivers

13.) Why were the Middles Colonies called the "melting pot"?

They had many different cultures- Quakers, Scots-Irish, Moravians, Swiss, Germans, Dutch, Swedish, and of course English

14.) Why were the Middle Colonies called the "bread colonies"?

They grew mainly cereal grains, such as wheat, barley, oats, and corn.

15-16.) Name two farm-supporting occupations from the Middle Colonies.

15.) Coopers
16.) Wainwrights
*Also merchants and blacksmiths, for note purposes

17.) What city became an important fur-trading center?

Albany, New York

18.) How did Africans become slaves in America?

They started off as indentured servants, but people began selling and enslaving them for longer and eventually for life, and people began trading with African tribes for them. The South needed cheap labor and the North used them for household servants/slaves.

19.) What area of the country profited most from slavery? Why?

They were in the Southern part of the country.
The South had large plantations and needed cheap labor. They also traded slaves for money.

20.) What was the Middle Passage?

The Middle Passage was the African's journey to the New World. They were shoved into a boat and stuffed with as many as possible at a time. They received little fresh air with so many, and they lived in human waste in those stuffed conditions for 3 weeks to 4 months. They were fed little, and with such close proximity, disease spread easily, and they were very rarely allowed outside for exercise, which was them being forced to dance or play drums.

21.) How did the Northerners usually use slaves?

They generally used them as household slaves/servants.

22.) What were the large farms in the South called?

They were called plantations.

22.) What was the tidewater? What crops grew there?

The tidewater was the South's wide coastal plains; The main crop that grew was rice, but indigo and tobacco was also grown there.

24.) What was the largest food crop in all the colonies?

This food crop was corn.

25.) What was the trade network called the triangular trade?

The trade network between the colonies, Africa, and Europe, forming a triangle was the triangular trade.
Colonies: Tobacco, rice, indigo, ships, whaling stuff
Europe: Manufactured goods such as tools, clothing, luxuries
Africa: Slaves

26.) Who was Richard Hakluyt?

Richard Hakluyt was a man who strongly supported exploration and had genuine concern for the Indian's souls, and he believed in preaching to the Indians.

27.) Who was the Puritan Minister who wrote the first Bible to be printed in America? Who was this Bible printed for?

This Puritan Minister was John Eliot, and he printed it in Algonquin for the Algonquin Indians.

28.) What were "praying towns"?

Towns that converted Christians to come and learn about the Bible, and European laws, customs, and town life.

29.) Explain Bacon's Rebellion. What was the outcome?

Virginia was already suffering from weather and financial problems, along with Indian attacks. Colonists attacked, but they attacked the wrong Indian tribes. William Berkely, the governor, tried to make peace with the Indians, but Nathaniel Bacon and a few other colonists didn't think he was doing enough to protect them. Bacon led some other colonists and they attacked the Indians, in which Berkeley declared him a rebel. Bacon continued on to capture and burn Jamestown, only to die of disease a couple of years later. The outcome was worse relationships with the Indians and his actions were seen by many as the earliest attempt to free colonies' rule from the British.

30.) What were the local armies in the colonies called?

The Militia was the name of the local armies in the colonies.

31.) Who held the "power of the purse" in the colonies?

The Legislature

32.) What was the main job of the justices of the peace?

They try people accused of crimes. Also, they settles disputes among citizens.

33.) What type of tax was the main source of income for colonial governments?

Property Tax

34.) What was a poll tax?

A tax collected in some colonies as a requirement before voting.

35.) What was the basic unit of government in New England?

Townships.

36.) How were the local governments organized in the South?

Counties/Parishes

37.) Who was allowed to vote in the New England colonies? How did they generally vote on Election Day?

White male landowning church members;
The two people who were wanting to lead stood up and an official announcer asked how the people voted. They usually spoke out loud and the nominee would bow their head in thanks.

38.) What was the frontier?

The unsettled land at the edge of settled areas.

39.) Know the Appalachian Mountains were the border of the frontier.

Border of frontier = Appalachian Mountains

40.) What were the climates, occupations, and reasons for occupations in all the colonies?

New England: New England had the coldest climate, land not suitable for farming, and had the occupations of fishing, whaling, and building/trading ships with Britain. The unusable land was the reason for occupations; they couldn't farm at all.
Middle Colonies: farming, great soil, temperate weather for farming, occupations around farming included coopers, wainwrights, merchants, and blacksmiths. They were mainly focused on farming was the reason for occupations.
South: They were agricultural, mainly with the great climate and the tidewater. They grew crops such as corn, rice, indigo, and tobacco. They usually had slaves do the work for them, but they also sold slaves and bought them. Reason: The had great soil, wide plantations, and a greed for money.

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